和平协议不能促成和平. 国际维和部队的到来也是如此. Transforming the conditions of instability and post-conflict reconstruction into lasting peace requires stable relations within and between the state and society. While peace agreements and international intervention are often necessary stimuli, 最重要的是人民和政府的伙伴关系. Partnerships are being developed in a series of countries to provide local leadership and expertise for this work, and we continue to partner with the 美国 Institute of Peace (USIP) for technical assistance and invaluable connections to emerging evidence bases and other expertise in the field.
Identifying Peace Indicators that Communities Can Use to Assess Change
未来几代人 concluded an exciting project in the realm of 建设和平 research, partnering with 美国 Institute of Peace to develop a bottom-up process of identifying Key Indicators of peace. The Everyday Peace Indicator Project sought to find how alternative, local indicators of peace can be meaningfully integrated into 政策 processes.
通常, 研究方法多用和平产复合体, 不直接相关的学术结果, 有用的, 有时甚至是为了让社区理解. 通过发展“和平指标”,“这个项目, 通过当地参与和当地所有权, produced sensitive local understanding of interventions in 建设和平 and conflict transformation. The assertion is that communities are best placed to measure and interpret their own peace.
Examples of indicators identified in USIP’s 日常和平指标 Project:
This study advances that real solutions to violence are inside communities and through research, answered what local communities can do to address violence and build peace. The objective was to equip communities with evidence at the neighborhood level that can inform 社区 behaviors that may curb the violence. Once stability is created, then social and economic conditions can advance.
未来几代人 alumni and current MA students conducted the research across eight countries(阿富汗, 埃塞俄比亚, 圭亚那, 乌干达, 尼泊尔, 尼日利亚, 索马里兰, 南苏丹), 每一个都面临着非常不同的暴力挑战. This built on a four-country experiment started by the 美国 Institute of Peace (USIP).
- 日常和平指标 (EPI) aspire to reflect viable metrics by which local levels of violence can be 评估ed. They are measurable and can be operationalized by 社区 members.
- EPIs必须特定于每个社区. 也许在遥远的某一天, 可以有通用的指标, but the evidence so far suggests each 社区 must find its own.
- EPIs will be most 有用的 the more they are used—across time to give trends and across the population to expand the population that is using them.
Researchers in the eight countries worked with communities to identify specific EPIs and develop those into projects and programs. 在所有情况下, the next steps were site-specific and plans were put into place for monitoring and evaluation. 10大信誉平台 is working to further develop a multi-sectoral approach this study.
The challenge is: how can citizens and communities help create the conditions of peace. What are the most effective approaches to stimulate broad-based, 社区-driven 建设和平? 为了回答这个问题, 未来几代人, 得到了纽约卡内基公司的支持, conducted a multi-year global study of the role of engaged citizens and communities in building peace. The project joined the collective experience of scholars and practitioners engaged in bottom-up 建设和平 with 未来几代人’ own insights and experience in promoting partnerships between communities, 政府, 和外部演员. This study resulted in the Peace Building Series of Occasional Papers below. New insights and understandings from this project continue to be disseminated to the academic, 政策, 和从业者社区. 看到这些研究
- People’s Participation in Conflict Transformation: A Case Study of Jana Andolan II in 尼泊尔 Bandita Sijapati, 2009年2月. 各级(地方)社区和公民团体, 地区和国家)跨阶层动员, 种姓, 少数民族, and religious divides to effectively topple the royal regime and help bring an end to the 10-year Maoist conflict.
- Statebuilding & Community without Reconciliation: A Case Study of 阿富汗’s National Solidarity Program 作者Jason Calder和Aziz Hakimi, 2009年3月. 认识到阿富汗在村庄一级的能力, a nationwide 社区-driven development program employing 政府, 社区, and NGO partnership has been one of the only large-scale successes in 阿富汗’s reconstruction.
- Seizing the Moment: A Case Study in Conflict and Peacemaking in Somoliland Rakiya Omaar, 2010年1月. Although ineffective 政府 and bloody factional fighting marked the first two years of 索马里兰’s independence from Somalia, the people of 索马里兰 took responsibility for their own peace and began building a new democracy.
- Toward Ethnic Conflict Transformation: A Case Study of Citizen Peacebuilding Initiatives on the 2006 圭亚那 Elections 作者:Roxanne Myers和Jason Calder, 2011年11月. 在2006年大选之前, 政府, 国际合作伙伴, and civil society mounted extensive 建设和平 efforts that averted violence, 促成了过去15年来最和平的选举.
- Building the Peace Architecture from the Bottom-Up: The Experience of Local Peace Committees in Burundi 作者Rene Claude Niyonkuru, 2012年11月. In areas scarred by the violent power struggle between the Hutu and Tutsi 少数民族 groups, local non-政府 organizations spearheaded two peace initiatives owned by ordinary citizens that led to significant changes in peoples attitude and behavior.
- Summary of Findings: Engaging Citizens and Communities in Peace Building Project 作者:Jason Calder, 2012年12月. The results of this series of case studies points to the importance of local rootedness in sustainable 建设和平 efforts. Beyond seeking locally owned approaches, the search should be for locally born ones.
Work started in 阿富汗 where the SEED-SCALE method launched cooperation among 490 mosques. It was followed by six years of systematic study in five countries funded by the Carnegie Corporation. Then Kathryn Davis saw the potential of SEED-SCALE and generously launched 建设和平 training at 未来几代人. 她最喜欢说的一句话是:“总会有冲突, 因此，10大信誉平台需要为和平做更多的准备，而不是冲突.“未来的一代 戴维斯和平计划 学者名单如下:
- 让·马克·勒穆(海地) 经济赋权促进和平项目
- 阿图尔塔英(印度) Strengthening of Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRI) to Transform the Local Communities Towards Achieving Sustainable Development in Arunachai Pradesh
- 丹尼尔·莱姆伦·格布鲁(埃塞俄比亚) Community Peacebuilding Between Minor and Major Ethnic Groups in Bahir Dar City, 埃塞俄比亚
- 2019年Maher Trabelsi(突尼斯) 可持续发展目标是通向和平的道路
- 2018特里斯坦B. 纳特(美国) 嫁接和平
- 2017 Fisseha Getahun(埃塞俄比亚) Developing Peace between a Leprosy- Affected and Surrounding Communities in Addis Ababa
- 2016年Emmanuel Kotin(加纳) 共同打击恐怖主义
- 2015年Deqa Osman(索马里) 促进妇女权利和获得司法的途径
- 2015年Nshing Jonathan Tim(喀麦隆) 提高青少年的和平意识
- 2014年Reyhaneh Hussaini(阿富汗) Promotion of Peace through a Cultural Dialogue of Hindu and Muslim Youth
- 2013年詹姆斯·拉提戈(乌干达) 社区推动的跨境建设和平项目
- 2012年斯坦利·安德里图(肯尼亚) Kuresoi和平项目
- 2011年Goldie Scott(圭亚那) 在圭亚那青年中提倡非暴力
- 2010年Rene Claude Niyonkuru(布隆迪) 为和平选举建立关系和信任
- 2009年Joy Bongyereire(乌干达) 建设和平和自然资源管理